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Юлия Латынина: "Вот, проще всего будет сказать, что эта чистка… - Юлия Латынина и ее творчество
Июнь 12, 2016
03:42 pm
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Юлия Латынина: "Вот, проще всего будет сказать, что эта чистка провалилась, потому что штаты США имели очень сильную традицию независимости от федеральной власти. И активисты Демпартии внутри штатов восприняли вояж президента как неслыханное вторжение на чужую территорию. То есть, вот, купить подкованных активистов – их сложнее, чем безработных избирателей."

Все намного круче. Тогда номинацию определяли даже не активисты, а профессиональные политики избранные на муниципальные, региональные и федеральные должности.

Fareed Zakaria: "Political parties do have mechanisms to “keep people out.” But far from being a trick, they are the crux of what makes parties valuable in a democracy.

Clinton Rossiter begins his classic book “Parties and Politics in America” with this declaration: “No America without democracy, no democracy without politics, no politics without parties.” In a large and diverse country, to get things done, people need devices to navigate the political system, organize themselves, channel particular interests and ideologies, and negotiate with others who have differing interests and views. Political parties have traditionally played this role in the United States. And they have often played it as a counterweight to the momentary passions of the public.

At the heart of the American political party is the selection of its presidential candidate. This process used to be controlled by party elites — moayrs, governors, legislators. In the early 20th century, an additional mechanism was added to test a candidate’s viability on the campaign trail: primaries. Still, between 1912 and 1968, the man who won a party’s presidential primaries became the nominee less than half the time. Dwight Eisenhower was chosen not by primary voters but in a complex, contested convention.

1968 was the year things changed. The radicalism that swept the Democratic Party also cast aside its rules for selecting nominees, favoring direct primaries over all else. The Republicans copied the Democrats, and soon the parties ended up with the system we have today. To choose their candidates for the November election, the parties simply hold prior elections. In this regard, the United States is almost unique among advanced democracies. Mostly everywhere else, political parties have not turned the nominating process into a plebiscite.

The result of these changes has been to hollow out political parties, turning them into empty vessels for the most successful political entrepreneur of the moment. In describing these trends in a book on democracy in 2003, I wrote that without strong parties, all you needed to run for president was name recognition and a fundraising machine. I predicted that the partyless system would be good for “political dynasties, celebrity officials and billionaire politicians.” The front-runners in both parties in 2016 fit this description."

Если бы во времена Рузвельта номинации бы определяли только избиратели, или хотя бы только зарегистрированные сторонники партии, то Рузвельту было бы достаточно мобилизовать профсоюзы, госслужащих, безработных на пособиях и публичных работах, просто массы сторонников и он бы мог продавить своих людей в парламент.

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